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m*g*h Mystery of the Great Pyramid

by Dr. Eng. Ossama Alsaadawi

I - Foreword :

 

II - Details:

 

Translations of some quotes:

- From the reference book "Ancient Egypt , by Selim Hassan" we read the following paragraph :

"and when the Nile flooded in Egypt only high places of the towns appear on the surface of water and they looked like small islands inside spacious sea and all Egypt becomes as an ocean . When that happens boats sail not only in the main stream of the Nile river but also in the plain valley and the boats could be seen passing directly close to bases of the pyramids .

 - From "History Of Ancient Egypt , by Nicole Grimal , Arabic version" we read :

"Stone blocks were transported by boats the during flood time when the water level becomes high enough to be very near to the work locations"

- From "Khufu's Boats, by Mokhtar Alswaify" we read:

"and by modesty of the scientists Dr. Abel Monem Abu Bakr admits in his research work that these boats that were buried directly around base of the great pyramid are in fact unsolved secrets that need more study to reveal them . Also we don't know for what purposes they were really used . We notice also that their storing rooms were water proof and air tight" .

 

 

the principle of hydraulic lift which allows lifting of heavy loads by small force

water tunnel in the sub-structure of the GP

   

ascending well and water hydraulic valve

 

   

the great water pool in front of Step Pyramid

 

water drainage tunnels of the Step Pyramid

 

               

 

 

           

 

       

 

    

 

 

*****************************************************************************

The following article was published by Ossama Alsaadawi

in year 2001 on Im-Ur online magazine:
 

To travel from USA to Egypt in just few hours is a real wonder, but using a Boeing 747 is a much more wonderful fact. Both are true wonders that no one can deny. However, when man arrives to Giza Plateau in Egypt and looks to the Great Pyramid of Khufu (GP), he stands at once astound thinking that he is facing a real True Fact that dates back to immemorial ancient civilization. His mind is sparkled immediately by three bright questions:

1- When?
2- Why?
3- How?

Unfortunately and surprisingly, mankind failed to answer these three logic questions may be for more than 4000 bygone years. Even Herodot failed to answer it when he visited Egypt some hundreds of year's (430) BC.

In this article, we'll try to shed light on the primary answer of the third question only, that is:

How the Ancient Egyptian Great Pyramid of Khufu has been constructed?

There are remnants of nearly 80 pyramids that stand alongside path or the river Nile in middle Egypt. Some of them are stilling in good condition but we are mainly interested in GP because it is the highest and most genius one.

Knowledgeable archaeologists and versed Egyptologists explain that:

= Main bulk of the GP is composed of 2.5 million stone blocks, each weighs 3 tons in average. This colossal mass of stone blocks is compiled in a pyramid-shaped construction with a maximum height of 146 m and base side-length of nearly 230-m.
It stands on top of a plateau, or big rocky hill, roof of which is raised 60 m above water level of the Nile, known as Giza Plateau.
Up to now there is no real problem. However, one little more technical data is really exiting.

= Architects assert that King's Chamber (KC) only is roofed by 9 vast massive granite stone blocks each weighs 75 tons. Preserved Egyptologists say that it is no more than 40 tons according to their rough estimations. Reasonable archaeologists say that that each weighs 55 tons. KC is placed at a height of nearly 70 m from base of GP or nearly 130 m from water level of the Nile.

Here, we reach to the real problem of GP construction, which is summarized to the following very simple question:

= How could engineers of King Khufu (raised-up) one 55-tons stone-block to a height of 130 meters?

To clarify this question in a better way, let's ask:

= How could man (raise) a 55-tons lorry or truck (up) to roof of a skyscraper, like Empire State Building for instance, without using any kind of machinery or self-propellant engines?

Egyptologists answered this question by casting ramp-theory, which states that AE's (raised-up) this (one) 55-tons stone-block by (dragging) it up a ramp of slope 6-8 degrees made of dust or hard mud using no rollers but only manpower and some lubricants!
Many peoples believed them but few shake their heads saying: NOOOO, it s Impossible!!

Why it's impossible? Well, let simple mathematics speak:

Work-done = mass x gravity x height - that is - (W = m x g x h).

Very simple, isn't it?

Therefore, work-done to raise-up this (one) 55-tons stone-block is:

W = 55000 kg x 10 x 130 = 71,500,000 joules (nearly 71 million joules).
1 horsepower = 750 joules/sec.

Therefore, energy needed to raise-up only ONE granite beam is equal nearly to 95 thousands of horsepower/sec, or nearly a million of manpower/sec, which is IMPOSSIBLE to attain by man force alone.

Then, what if we calculated the whole work-done necessary to build-up the whole Great Pyramid? It is given simply as:

[Total work-done = 0.22 x total mass x gravity x maximum height]

So, total work done used to build the Great Pyramid is; 0.22 x 7.5 billion kgs x 10 x 146 > 2.4 Tera Joules.

Therefore, calculations indicate that King Khufu needed billions of horsepower’s to realize this historic world-wonder that survived for long thousands of years!

Conclusion: No way with ramps and No way with manpower alone to build the GP. There must be some kind of external natural active-power to realize the job.

The question now is; what was this active power?

True reading of AE Hieroglyphic texts, in light of ‘Alsaadawi's Theory on True Hieroglyphs’ states that this active power was:

= Water.

That is, hydraulic force of successive inundation waters was used within a highly-organized state-project to raise-up main massive stone-bulk of the Great Pyramid within a big hydraulic complex, using ascending wells, leakage water tunnels, heavy wooden floats and boats etc.

Ossama Alsaadawi

---------------------------------------------

Translations of some selected quotes taken from my book that was first published in 1997 in Egypt:

Secret of the Pharaohs and Astronomy,
By, Ossama Alsaadawi
ISBN: 978-245-20-4408, in Arabic.

>> Ossama Alsaadawi declares his great discovery of Hydraulic Theory used for construction of the GP,

A new exciting scientific discovery,
The great secret of GP construction method,

Question: how 5 tons stone block could be raised up to a height of 20 meters without using modern machinery or dense labor?

The answer is:

**it could be done only by Hydraulic Lifts**

King Khufu used ascending wells, hydraulic lifts and hydraulic techniques for building his Great Pyramid,

**power = water mass / area of ascending well**

This is the golden hydraulic rule on which King Khufu relied to design very effective hydraulic lifts and to raise-up colossal heavy stones up to high altitudes.

**In fact nearly all pyramids and even mastabas were built using the same technique, that is Hydraulic Lifts. I save design diagrams for such hydraulic lifts of All Sizes and Powers** <<

Ossama Alsaadawi

----------------------------------------

Comment taken from selected quotes from the following messages that were posted on Guardian BB:

By Joel Larid on Wednesday, June 30, 1999 - 10:06 am:

Hi all,
Ossama is right. If friction is ignored then the work done (energy spent) is m*g*h, no matter what path is taken by the mass; it is only the change is height that is important. This is a result of physics that applies to many different situations.


Including the effect of friction can only increase the required amount of work, and now the path taken to raise the mass is important. The least work would be done by lifting the mass straight up (pushing the mass up a slope, even if it were on wheels, would take more energy).

By Joel Larid on Thursday, July 1, 1999 - 05:31 am:

Ossama is right; no matter what method of construction they used (ramps, pulleys, cranes, counter-weights or levers) this is the amount of energy that had to be spent by the workmen, if no other source of power was harnessed.

I agree with Chris that the granite beams would destroy these ramps, so these blocks may have been lifted by some other method.

Inundation power would greatly simplify this, as the problem becomes a matter of buoyancy which invalidates the use of m*g*h.

Furthermore, these granite beams had to have been lowered into position. Surely sliding them into position would pull the King's chamber apart?

All the best,
Joel.

--------------------------------------------

Comment:

Some people try to ignore all scientific and physical evidence to prove that their imaginary wrong assumptions are correct. They insist that a group of men is able to raise up a 50-tons granite block up a muddy ramp to 50 meters height using only their hands and manpower. When we told them that physics and science proved that this is impossible, they said we’d proved it practically!

They brought 1-ton stone block (using a truck) to the location and used about 20 men to drag the stone up a very small pre-prepared ramp that extends to only 2 meters height in 2 hours hardworking. Then they said, you see: the experiment succeeded!!

But what if they tried another only additional eight meters of height? In, fact the stone weight will not remain 1 ton. It’ll be 1 ton plus its new gravitational weight, which is (1+m*g*h). It means the new stone weight is, (1+1000*10*10/10/1000/2) = (1+5) = 6 tons. Now they need much more men to raise-up the new weight, which is (6 tons), not only 1 ton! Then what about only additional 20 meters?! or at upper courses of the GP at an altitude of 130 meters for instance?!!

In fact the experiment was a BIG FAILURE, even using only 1-ton stone block.

Gentlemen, it is not necessary to fool ourselves or to fool lay peoples, otherwise we lose our merit!

Ossama Alsaadawi

------------------------------------------

The following quote is taken from an article about GP construction published in American Civil Engineering Magazine, June 1999, which is supplied by Mr. Larry Orcutt.

**Our calculations convinced us that most of the ramp concepts would have been impractical because they involved a construction effort greater than that required for the pyramid itself. We assumed that the Egyptians would not commit resources to building anything more than minimally required given the fact that the ramp had to be demolished at the conclusion of construction**

--------------------------------------------

The following message was posted online:

Dear Sameh,

Thank you for taking some valuable time of yours to respond to my message. In fact, I see items of this subject quite clearly. I don’t mix religion with engineering. There are too many hearsay nonscientific wrong assumptions in Egyptology that gained power because of repeating them frequently.

Of these hearsay wrong assumptions:

1- > the discrepancy between the Nile year and the calendar year and the missing 1/4 day in the later pre-Khufu were responsible to irregularities in the seasonal timing of the flood, with the month Tut sometimes coming in summer and sometimes in winter due to the accumulation of those 6 hours per year over centuries <

This is NOT TRUE. Egyptologists misread AE highly advanced and extremely accurate calendar system because they misread nearly most of AE writings. Please revise my great discovery of TRUE AE Calendar on my website under ‘AE Calendar System’:

2- > Moreover, it was a real challenge and a threat to the esteem of the king, as a god or a god's son <

Again, this is NOT TRUE. AE kings NEVER considered themselves as sons of god. This fib resulted because Egyptologists translated (sa-ra) as ‘son of god’, which is a wrong reading. Please, read ‘true denotations of AE hieroglyphs’ under ‘notes from Ossama Alsaadawi’ in my same mentioned website.

Now, lets concentrate our attention to ‘scientific’ facts that relate to GP building.

> However, it remains to be a theory with no proof, in contrast to Hawas-Lehner's one which is supported by the remnants of tafla <

I see it vise versa. Lehner-Hawas ramp theory failed to find ‘any’ scientific proof further than faint traces of some small ramps used for labor traffic and water motion control. Meanwhile, my Hydraulic Theory has already non-denied evident scientific and archaeological facts.

One example only is that archaeologists found more than 10 ships and barges preserved inside ‘airtight’ pits ON TOP of Giza plateau. Some people said that those barges were used by the pharaoh and his inferiors to ride the sunbeam to go to the sky to meet sun-god (ra)!!

Scientifically these boats were used as an integrated part of the massive hydraulic system.

> The major reason for rejecting the theory of a one ramp was the geographical limitation of the Giza Plateau, which sounds very reasonable <

All kinds of mathematical estimations and physical evidence proved that it was IMPOSSIBLE to use high ramps in raising-up massive stones of the GP. Therefore, it is not necessary to beat a dead body anymore.

> In other words, the builders had to wait for the water level to reach the required course, place the stones in the same pace of the water rising, and stop working as soon as the level exceeds the desired level. Next year, they still have to wait idle until the water level reaches where they have stopped previously, and race the time again fulfilling the 9-10 courses quota before the water level changes again. This has to be repeated over several years, until the Nile cannot reach the required original hight of 481 ft. How would they proceed then? <

It is not that simple!! Engineering system means to ‘control’ waters motion and levels by some well-known hydraulic techniques like the case in shipyards using water locks. In fact, working on GP construction never stopped because of differentiation of inundation power. Raising-up was only one small operation of the whole project.

> Yet before I step aside, let me withdraw your attention to an un-explained finding that the stones of the initial 18 courses average 2-6 tons apiece. Starting the 19th course, the stones became huge (10-15 apiece) for the next 203 courses. The rule of logic dictates a progressive diminution of mass as we go upwards <

That’s exactly why Hydraulic Theory is the only one that Works!! This is really the Genius of King Khufu and the GP. For this reason 8 major armies failed, along long history of Egypt, to demolish the GP!! Only if we think from engineering point of view! Therefore, I asked before:

‘Why all occupying armies failed to demolish the GP?’

I know the answer!

Kind regards,
Ossama Alsaadawi

----------------------------------

The following quote is taken from an article about GP construction published in American Civil Engineering Magazine, June 1999, which is supplied by Mr. Larry Orcutt.

**Our calculations convinced us that most of the ramp concepts would have been impractical because they involved a construction effort greater than that required for the pyramid itself. We assumed that the Egyptians would not commit resources to building anything more than minimally required given the fact that the ramp had to be demolished at the conclusion of construction**

 

*****************************************************************************

 

Comments taken from selected quotes from the following messages that were posted on Guardian BB:
 

By Joel Larid on Wednesday, June 30, 1999 - 10:06 am:

Hi all,
Ossama is right. If friction is ignored then the work done (energy spent) is m*g*h, no matter what path is taken by the mass; it is only the change is height that is important. This is a result of physics that applies to many different situations.

Including the effect of friction can only increase the required amount of work, and now the path taken to raise the mass is important. The least work would be done by lifting the mass straight up (pushing the mass up a slope, even if it were on wheels, would take more energy).


*****************************************************************************

 

By Joel Larid on Thursday, July 1, 1999 - 05:31 am:

Ossama is right; no matter what method of construction they used (ramps, pulleys, cranes, counter-weights or levers) this is the amount of energy that had to be spent by the workmen, if no other source of power was harnessed.

I agree with Chris that the granite beams would destroy these ramps, so these blocks may have been lifted by some other method.

Inundation power would greatly simplify this, as the problem becomes a matter of buoyancy which invalidates the use of m*g*h.

Furthermore, these granite beams had to have been lowered into position. Surely sliding them into position would pull the King's chamber apart?

All the best,
Joel.

*****************************************************************************

The following message was posted to Egyptology online Group:

New theory for the building of the Great Pyramid

The following important message has been posted online on Isis-Moon Club taken after the original Theory on the website of Ossama Alsaadawi, I find it proper to include it here for the sake of good Egyptology.

Best Regards,
Ossama Alsaadawi

Date: Sat, 14 Jun 2003 19:32:07 -0000
From: "clubsmoderator"

Subject: NEWS ARTICLE: New theory of the building of the Great Pyramid

To travel from the USA to Egypt in just few hours is a real wonder, but using a Boeing 747 is a much more wonderful fact. Both are true wonders that no one can deny. However, when one arrives to Giza Plateau in Egypt and looks to the Great Pyramid of Khufu, he or she stands at once astounded, knowing that he or she is facing a real True Fact that dates back to immemorial ancient civilization. The mind is sparkled immediately by three questions:

1- When?

2- Why?

3- How?

Unfortunately and surprisingly, modern humans have failed to answer these three logic questions for more than 4000 bygone years. Even Herodot failed to answer it when he visited ancient Egypt in 430BC.

In this article, we'll try to shed light on the primary answer of the third question only, that is:

How the Ancient Egyptian Great Pyramid of Khufu has been constructed?

There are remnants of nearly 80 pyramids that stand alongside the path of the river Nile in Egypt. Some of them are still in good condition but we are mainly interested in GP because it is the highest and most interesting one.

Knowledgeable archaeologists and Egyptologists explain that: The Main bulk of the GP is composed of 2.5 million stone blocks, each weighs 3 tons in average. This colossal mass of stone blocks is compiled in a pyramid-shaped construction with a maximum height of 146 m and base side-length of nearly 230-m. It stands on top of a plateau, or big rocky hill, the roof of which is raised 60m above the water level of the Nile, known as Giza Plateau.

Up to now there is no real problem. However, one little bit of technical data is really interesting. Architects assert that the King's Chamber (KC) only is roofed by 9 vast massive granite stone blocks, each weighing 75 tons. Egyptologists say that they are no more than 40 tons according to their rough estimations. Archaeologists say that that each weighs 55 tons. KC is placed at a height of nearly 70m from the base of the GP or nearly 130m from the water level of the Nile.

Here, we reach the real problem of the GP construction, which is summarized by the following very simple question:

How could engineers of King Khufu raised-up 55 ton stone blocks to a height of 130 meters?

To clarify this question in a better way, let's ask: How could modern humans raise a 55 ton truck up to the roof of a skyscraper, like the Empire State Building for instance, without using any kind of machinery or self-propellant engines?

Egyptologists answered this question by bringing forth the ramp-theory, which states that the ancient Egyptians raised up these 55 ton stone blocks by dragging them up a ramp with a slope of 6-8 degrees, made of dust or hard mud using no rollers but only manpower and some lubricants! Many people believed them but a few believe it to be impossible.

Why do they believe it impossible? Well, let simple mathematics speak: Work done = mass x gravity x height - that is - (W = m x g x h). Therefore, work done to raise up one 55 ton stone block is: W = 55000 kg x 10 x 130 = 71,500,000 joules (nearly 71 million joules). 1 horsepower = 750 joules/sec. Therefore, energy needed to raise up only ONE granite beam is equal to nearly 95 thousand horsepower/sec, or nearly a million manpower/sec, which is IMPOSSIBLE to attain by human force alone.

Then, what if we calculated the whole work done necessary to build up the whole Great Pyramid? Alsaadawi says that it is given simply as: Total work done = 0.22 x total mass x gravity x maximum height. So, total work done used to build the Great Pyramid is: 0.22 x 7.5 billion kgs x 10 x 146 > 2.4 Tera Joules. Therefore, calculations indicate that King Khufu needed billions of horsepower to realize this historic world wonder that has survived for long thousands of years!

Conclusion: No way with ramps and No way with manpower alone to build the GP. There must be some kind of external natural active-power to realize the job.

The question now is; what was this active power?

One new theory is that this active power was Water. That is, hydraulic force of successive inundation waters that was used within a highly organized state project to raise up the main massive stone bulk of the Great Pyramid within a big hydraulic complex, using ascending wells, leakage water tunnels, heavy wooden floats, boats, etc.

So, the question of how 5 ton stone blocks could be raised up to a height of 20 meters without using modern machinery or human labor, could be answered that it could be done by
Hydraulic Lifts. If this new theory is true, Pharaoh Khufu used ascending wells, hydraulic lifts and hydraulic techniques for building his Great Pyramid, power = water mass / area of ascending well. This would be the golden hydraulic rule on which Khufu may have relied, to design very effective hydraulic lifts and to raise-up colossal heavy stones up to high altitudes. This leads to the assumption that nearly all pyramids and even mastabas were built using the same technique, that is Hydraulic Lifts.

Those people who agree with this modern theory also state that, 'Ossama is right': If friction is ignored then the work done (energy spent) is
m*g*h, no matter what path is taken by the mass; it is only the change is height that is important. This is a result of physics that applies to many different situations. Including the effect of friction can only increase the required amount of work, and now the path taken to raise the mass is important. The least work would be done by lifting the mass straight up (pushing the mass up a slope, even if it were on wheels, would take more energy). No matter what method of construction they used (ramps, pulleys, cranes, counter-weights or levers) this is the amount of energy that had to be spent by the workmen, if no other source of power was harnessed.

The granite beams would destroy these ramps, so these blocks may have been lifted by some other method. Inundation power would greatly simplify this, as the problem becomes a matter of buoyancy which invalidates the use of m*g*h. Furthermore, these granite beams had to have been lowered into position. Surely sliding them into position would pull the King's chamber apart.

Some people try to ignore all scientific and physical evidence to prove that their imaginary wrong assumptions are correct. They insist that a group of men is able to raise up a 50 ton granite block up a muddy ramp to a 50 meter height using only their hands and manpower. When we told them that physics and science proved that this is impossible, they said we'd prove it practically!

They brought 1-ton stone block (using a truck) to the location and used about 20 men to drag the stone up a very small pre-prepared ramp that extends to only 2 meters height in 2 hours hardworking. Then they said, you see: the experiment has succeeded! 

But what if they tried another only additional eight meters of height? In, fact the stone weight will not remain 1 ton. It'll be 1 ton plus its new gravitational weight, which is (1+m*g*h). It means the new stone weight is, (1+1000*10*10/10/1000/2) = (1+5) = 6 tons.
Now they need much more men to raise-up the new weight, which is (6 tons), not only 1 ton!

Then what about only additional 20 meters?! or at upper courses of the GP at an altitude of 130 meters for instance?

As one might expect, those who do not agree with the old theories of pyramid construction call the experiment a BIG FAILURE, even using only a 1-ton stone block.

Followers of the new theory also have further stated: Our calculations convinced us that most of the ramp concepts would have been impractical because they involved a construction effort greater than that required for the pyramid itself. We assumed that the ancient Egyptians would not commit resources to building anything more than minimally required given the fact that the ramp had to be demolished at the conclusion of construction.

According to the new theorists: The Lehner-Hawas ramp theory failed to find `any' scientific proof further than faint traces of some small ramps used for labor traffic and water motion control.

Meanwhile, the new Hydraulic Theory of Alsaadawi has not denied evident scientific and archaeological facts. One example only is that archaeologists found more than 10 ships and barges preserved inside `airtight' pits ON TOP of Giza plateau. Some people said that those barges were used by the pharaoh and his inferiors to ride the sunbeam to go to the sky to meet sun-god (ra). Scientifically these boats were used as an integrated part of the massive hydraulic system.

The major reason for rejecting the theory of a ramp was the geographical limitation of the Giza Plateau. All kinds of mathematical estimations and physical evidence proved that it was IMPOSSIBLE to use high ramps in raising-up massive stones of the GP.

In other words, the builders had to wait for the water level to reach the required course, place the stones in the same pace of the water rising, and stop working as soon as the level exceeded the desired level. The next year, they still had to wait idle until the water level reached where they have stopped previously, and race against time again fulfilling the 9-10 courses quota before the water level changed again.

This had to be repeated over several years, until the Nile could not reach the required original height of 481 ft. Then they would proceed by using an engineering system means to `control' waters motion and levels by some well-known hydraulic techniques like the case in shipyards using water locks. In fact, working on GP construction never stopped because of differentiation of inundation power. Raising up was only one small operation of the whole project.

An interesting fact: The stones of the initial 18 courses average 2-6 tons apiece. Starting the 19th course, the stones became huge (10-15 apiece) for the next 203 courses. The rule of logic dictates a progressive diminution of mass as one goes upwards.

That's why Hydraulic Theory is believed by some to be the only one that Works.

This would be the real Genius of Khufu and the GP. For this reason 8 major armies failed, in the long history of Egypt, to demolish the GP.

*****************************************
AnkhIwiEmHotep

Syriad SaAsetEmHotepMaaKheru

High Priest of Aset (Isis),
Master Worship Training Instructor,
SanctuaryMaster,
Isis Moon Temple
 

---------------------------------

To be continued,
Ossama Alsaadawi

 

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